Prostate Cancer Causes, Symptoms and Treatment.

Prostate Cancer Causes_Symptoms_Treatment._Xtralife_blog

Compartir en:

What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects millions of men around the world. Prostate cancer cases increased in the early 1990s. This trend can be attributed to advances in screening technology. These numbers have been falling since 2006, when fewer than 60,000 cases were diagnosed. However, the number of deaths from prostate cancer remained unchanged.

Cancer begins when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in most parts of the body can become cancerous and then spread to other parts of the body.

Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate begin to grow out of control. The prostate is a gland that only men have. This gland produces part of the fluid that makes up semen.

The prostate is located below the bladder (the hollow organ where urine is stored) and in front of the rectum (the last part of the intestine). Just behind the prostate are glands called the seminal vesicles, which produce most of the fluid in semen. The urethra, which is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, runs through the center of the prostate gland.

The size of the prostate can change with age. In younger men, the prostate is about the size of a walnut. However, it can be much higher in older men.

cancer of prostate

What are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

The symptoms are different in each person. In some cases, there are men who do not present any symptoms, while in other cases they present:

  • Difficulty starting to urinate.
  • Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
  • Frequent urination, especially at night.
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder completely.
  • Pain or burning when urinating.
  • Blood in urine or semen.
  • Persistent pain in the back, hips, or pelvis.
  • Pain when ejaculating.
  • Keep in mind that these symptoms may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.

NOTE: If you have any of the following symptoms, see your doctor right away.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer Causes?

There are several causes and risk factors that allow the development of this type of cancer, such as:

  • Advanced age. The risk of prostate cancer increases with age. It is more common after the age of 50.
  • Race. For reasons that have not yet been determined, African-American men have a higher risk of prostate cancer than men of other races. In African Americans, prostate cancer is also more likely to grow or progress more severely.
  • Genetic or family history. If a close relative, such as a father, brother, or son, has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, your risk may be higher. Also, if you have a family history of a gene that increases the risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher.
  • Obesity. Obese people may have a higher risk of prostate cancer than those considered to be at a healthy weight, although studies have shown mixed results. In obese people, the cancer is more likely to flare up or come back after initial treatment.

Prostate Cancer Causes

Consequences of not treating prostate cancer?

The cancer spreads (metastasizes). Prostate cancer can spread to nearby organs, such as the bladder, or spread through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to bones or other organs. Prostate cancer that has spread to the bones can cause pain and fractures. Once prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it may still respond to treatment and be under control, but it is not likely to be cured.

Urinary incontinence. Prostate cancer and its treatment can cause urinary incontinence. Treatment of urinary incontinence depends on the type you have, how severe it is, and how likely it is to improve over time. Treatment options include medications, catheterization, and surgery.

Erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can be caused by prostate cancer or by treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy. There are medications, vacuum devices to help with erections, and surgery to treat erectile dysfunction.

Consequences of not treating prostate cancer

How to Diagnose Prostate Cancer?

Most health organizations encourage men between the ages of 50 and 59 to talk to their doctors about the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening. The discussion should include looking at your risk factors and testing preferences.

The two exams as a first step for prostate detection are:

  • The rectal exam. A process where the doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to examine the prostate gland, which is located next to the rectum. If your doctor finds abnormalities in the texture, shape, or size of the gland, you may need more tests.
  • Prostate-specific antigen test. A blood sample is taken from a vein in your arm and tested for PSA, a substance produced naturally by the prostate gland. Having a small amount (PSA) in the blood is normal. However, if higher than normal levels are found, it may indicate an infection, inflammation, enlargement, or cancer in the prostate.

If abnormalities are found during prostate cancer screening, your doctor may recommend tests, such as the following, to determine if you have prostate cancer:

  • Ultrasound / Echography. During a transrectal ultrasound, a small probe, about the size and shape of a cigar, is inserted into the rectum. The transducer uses sound waves to create an image of the prostate gland.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging. In some cases, your doctor may recommend an MRI scan to create more detailed images. (MRI) can help your doctor plan a sample of prostate tissue.
  • Removing a sample of prostate tissue. To determine the presence of cancer cells in the prostate, your doctor may recommend a procedure to take a sample of cells (prostate biopsy). A prostate biopsy is usually done with a thin needle inserted into the prostate gland to remove tissue. The tissue sample is analyzed in a laboratory to determine if cancer cells are present.

How to Diagnose Prostate Cancer

What Treatment to Follow for Prostate Cancer?

Expectant Behavior or Active Surveillance. They are used to treat older men with no signs or symptoms or other conditions, and men who are found to have prostate cancer during screening tests.

Watchful waiting is closely observing the patient’s condition without treating the patient until signs or symptoms appear or change. During active surveillance, the patient’s condition is closely monitored without any treatment unless there are changes in the test results.

Surgery. The number of prostate surgeries has decreased over the years. But BPH surgery remains the most common surgery for American men. Surgery is used when symptoms are severe or when drug therapy has not worked.

These operation options include transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP), transurethral needle ablation, transurethral microwave thermotherapy, transurethral electroevaporation of the prostate (TVEP), laser surgery, and open prostatectomy.

Radiotherapy and Radiopharmaceutical Therapy. Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from dividing.

There are several types of radiation therapy; we have external beam radiotherapy, this type of radiotherapy uses a machine to deliver radiation to the cancerous area from outside the body, this serves to adjust the radiation beams to the shape of the tumor, allowing high doses of radiation to reach the tumor and cause less damage to surrounding normal tissue.

Internal radiation therapy uses radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. In the case of radiopharmaceutical therapy, a radioactive substance is used to treat cancer.

It is an alpha emission radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance to treat prostate cancer that has spread to the bone to attack and destroy cancer cells.

Hormone therapy. It is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or stops them from working and stops cancer cells from dividing.Hormones are substances produced by glands in the body that circulate in the blood.

Male sex hormones can cause the development of prostate cancer. Medicines, surgery, or other hormones are used to lower the levels of male hormones or to make them stop working. This is called androgen therapy.

Hormone therapy

Chemotherapy. It is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.

When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drug enters the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy).

Targeted therapy. It is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells. Targeted therapies generally cause less damage to normal cells than chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Immunotherapy. It is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or in a laboratory that are used to stimulate, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This cancer treatment is a type of biological therapy.

Sipuleucel-T is a type of immunotherapy used to treat prostate cancer that has spread (metastasized to other parts of the body).

Bisphosphonate therapy. Bisphosphonates, such as clodronate or zoledronate, reduce bone disease when the cancer has spread to the bone. Men who have taken antiandrogen medications or who have had an orchiectomy are at increased risk of bone loss.

In these men, bisphosphonates reduced the risk of fractures. The use of bisphosphonates to prevent or delay bone metastasis has been the subject of clinical trials.

Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.

When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drug enters the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy).

Chemotherapy prostate cancer

What recommendations to take in case you still do not have Prostate Cancer?

  • There are several preventive methods so that this condition does not become complicated and thus be able to reduce the risk.
  • Have a healthy diet based on consumption of fruits and vegetables.
  • There are supplements that help relieve urinary tract symptoms.
  • exercise every day of the week.
  • keep a healthy weight.
  • talk to your doctor about an increased risk of prostate cancer.


NOTE: If you present symptoms of pain or complications when on mission, it is advisable to go to your family doctor, to be able to take a specific treatment and try to solve this problem as soon as possible.

recommendations to take in case you still do not have Prostate Cancer